Promoting Participatory and Evidence-Based Agricultural Policy Process in Africa

Abstract:

The project, in support of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), will be conducting research on African policy processes in close collaboration with local stakeholders and policy makers in Ghana, Uganda and Senegal with a view to increasing political performance that result in more effective and poverty-oriented policies and strategies. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, research results will help identify practical strategies that will help policy-makers and administrative staff at the central and sub-national levels to more effectively exploit existing evidence on policy options available to them in the implementation of their national agricultural strategies. At the methodological level, innovative quantitative and qualitative methods of policy network analysis are applied. Further, the project uses a general political economy equilibrium model that allows simulating how different political and economic conditions influence policy outcomes.

 

Project Co-ordinator:

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Washington DC, United States

Project Team:

Michael Johnson
IFPRI, Unites States

Ousmane Badiane
IFPRI, Senegal

Sam Benin
IFPRI, United States

Sunday Odjo
IFPRI, Senegal

Christian Henning
University of Kiel, Germany

Eva Krampe
University of Kiel, Germany

Laura Seide
University of Kiel, Germany

Johannes Hedtrich
University of Kiel, Germany

Sascha Stark
University of Kiel, Germany

Regina Birner
University of Hohenheim, Germany

Jonathan Mockshell
University of Hohenheim, Germany

Felix Asante
Institute of Statistical Social and Economic Research, Ghana

Cheikh Sadibou
Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles, Senegal

Patience Rwamigisa
African Institute for Strategic Resource Services and Development, Uganda

Project Funding:

German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)

Project Duration:

2012-2015

 

Link zur offiziellen Website: PEBAP


Work Packages

Work package 1:

Policy landscape analyses, stakeholder interaction and data collection

Work package 2:

Theoretical and empirical application of the CGPE approach

Work package 3:

Development of participatory toolkit for policy analysis and action

Work package 4:

Dissemination of knowledge

The Comparison of Electoral Systems' Functions with a Special Focus on Mixed Systems

Abstract:

Both PR and plurality/majority systems have positive as well as negative effects. Since the 1980s, a discussion has come up whether or not mixed electoral systems could combine advantages of both types. However, the hitherto existing contributions to this question are insufficient. It is the project’s aim to deal with this question. By now, there is no generally accepted definition of ‘mixed electoral systems’. Some authors even deny the existence of such systems. Thus, the first step is doing basic groundwork in this field. Further, there is a lack of indicators for the measurement of electoral systems’ functions. This is especially the case for advantages of plurality systems. Third, former studies often lack to search for which variables exactly cause the effects of certain electoral systems. Here, systematic studies shall identify factors which are crucial for positive or negative effects of (mixed) electoral systems. Therefore, a combination of small and large n studies is proposed. A case study focuses on the German ‘personalisierte Verhältniswahl’ that is often described as a positive example for mixed electoral systems. From this case study, we can get a deeper understanding of which elements of the mixture lead to the described positive effects and under which conditions this is the case. The large n part refers to a broad international comparison of mixed electoral systems in order to identify variables of mixed electoral systems’ design which are statistically relevant for positive or negative effects.

 

Project Director:

Jun.-Prof. Dr. Eric Linhart
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kiel, Germany

Project Assistant:

Johannes Raabe
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kiel, Germany

Project Funding:

DFG

Project Duration:

2012-2015

Focus project ConfPref1: Modeling belief formation and consumer preferences for functional food: An integration of evolutionary economic and microeconomic approaches


Abstract:

Not at least due to innovative research results in food sciences functional foods are becoming increasingly important in consumer’s diary. However, nowadays it is still problematic to predict ex ante the economic success and the induced welfare implications of specific functional foods. Accordingly, there is a need for adequate models of consumer behavior that in particular enable a forecast of consumer demand for innovative functional food products. Consumer demand for functional food is characterized by fundamental uncertainty, i.e. from the view point of an individual consumer it is often impossible to understand how consumption of specific functional food products is technically related with individual health or convenience.

In this context this projects derives an innovative consumer demand model integrating an agent-based model of consumer belief formation in social communication networks regarding perceived technical relations of functional food and a microeconomic two-stage household production function approach. The theoretical model will be applied empirically based on survey data collected within the KIK-panel (Kieler- Interventions-Kohorte).

In particular, the following research questions will be addressed: (1) What are relevant socio-economic and political determinants of consumer demand for functional food; (2) What kind of collective action problems might result from fundamental uncertainty regarding impacts of functional food on health and convenience; (3) What is the influence of specific communication network structures on consumers’ belief formation and demand for functional food; (4) To what extend can empirically estimated stated or revealed consumer preferences be replicated by our integrated theoretical approach.

 

Project Director:

Prof. Dr. Dr. Christian Henning
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kiel, Germany

Project Assistant:

N.N.

Project Funding:

BMF

Project Duration:

2010-2012

 

Link zur offiziellen Website: Focus


Work Packages

Work package 1:

Theoretical derivation and programming of integrated ABM-household production function approach

Work package 2:

Consumer Survey on Functional Food

Work package 3:

Simulation studies of consumer demand for functional food

BiogasExpert

Abstract:

Aim of this project is a quantitative analysis of the complex economical impact an intensified expansion of the biogas production in Schleswig-Holstein taking into account the enviromental restrictions. Special emphasis is put on the investigation of the impact on an operational, sectoral and regional level and their implication for local enviromental goods for various physical subregions of Schleswig-Holstein taking into account the different economical and political conditions.

Primary data acquisition of the biogas plants in Schleswig-Holstein via interviews over the telephone and enquiries to the offices in charge, secondary statistics, amongst others from the Agricultural Bookkeeping Organisation and from the Statistical Bureau of Schleswig Holstein

 

Project Director:

Prof. Dr. Dr. Christian Henning
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kiel, Germany

Dr. Volker Saggau
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kiel, Germany

Project Funding:

BMBF Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung

Project Duration:

2009-2012

 

Link zur offiziellen Website: BiogasExpert


Work Packages

Work package 1:

Betriebs-LP

Work package 2:

Regional-LP

Work package 3:

Political Institutions and Agricultural Protection: Theoretical Explanations and Empirical Evidence from TSCS-data

Abstract:

Inspired by the work of Persson and Tabellini this projects analyses how formal and informal political institutions impact on agricultural policy outcomes. At theoretical level a probabilistic voter models is integrated with legislative bargaining models to analyze how the interplay of formal constitutional rules, i.e. electoral rules and the governmental system, with informal institutions, i.e. legislative norms or interest group influence, determine agricultural protection. In particular, a theory of agricultural protection in parliamentary and presidential systems combined with majoritarian, mixed or proportional representation systems will be developed. Moreover, a theory of agricultural political decision-making in the EU-system will be developed including specific informal legislative norms organizing political exchange between national member states like the Luxembourg compromise. Given the fact that existing political economy models fail to explain observed large cross-country differences in agricultural protection among industrialized or among developing countries, respectively. Thus, one central target of the new developed theory is certainly to provide an explanation for these observed variation in protection. In the empirical part of the project we test our theory using time-series cross-country data for about 75 countries. Our econometric specification will account for several problems using time-series cross-country data, i.e. serially correlation and unobserved country heterogeneity. Additionally, it will be tested to what extend advanced econometric techniques can be applied that allow the identification of true causal effects of political institutions.

Project Director:

Prof. Dr. Dr. Christian H.C.A. Henning
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kiel, Germany

Dr. Christian Aßmann
Chair of Statistics and Econometrics, University of Bamberg, Germany

Project Assistant:

M.Sc.agr. Eva Krampe
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kiel, Germany

Project funding:

DFG

Project duration:

2008-2012

 


Work Packages

Work package 1:

Constitutional Rules, Legislative Norms and Agricultural Policy Outcomes in the EU-System

Work package 2:

Electoral Systems and Agricultural Protection: Theory and Empirical Evidence from Parliamentary Democracies

Work package 3:

Constitutional Rules, Informal Institutions and Agricultural Protection in Developing and Industrial Countries: Theory and Empirical Evidence

 

 

 

Political Economy Analyses of Agricultural Reforms in Malawi

Abstract:

The research project aims at contributing to a better understanding of agricultural policy choices in developing countries. Using agricultural reform processes in Malawi as a case study the focus is placed on examining why agricultural policies that are suboptimal or even contradictory to pro-poor growth have remained widespread and persistent in spite of the changes in economic and political conditions experienced during the past decades. While most currently used political economy approaches model political decision-making as a “black box” assuming a unitary political actor who maximizes a given political preference, voter support, or influence function, the proposed project will explicitly model the political decision-making process in Malawi as an interaction between a set of individual political actors including politicians and stakeholder organizations. The project comprises of 2 work packages: (1)A quantitative policy network study, (2) a simulation study based on a computable general political economy equilibrium model (CGPE).

 

Project Director:

Prof. Dr. Dr. Christian H.C.A. Henning
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kiel, Germany

Dr. Michael Johnson
IFPRI

Prof. Dr. Regina Birner
IFPRI and University of Hohenheim, Germany

Project Assistants:

Dr. Eva Schiffer
IFPRI

Klaus Droppelmann
IFPRI

Noora-Lisa Aberman
IFPRI

Peter Gaff
IFPRI

Eva Krampe
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kiel, Germany

Project Partners:

Bunda College, Malawi

Agricultural and Natural Resources Management Consortium, Malawi

Project funding:

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington D.C., United States (Malawi Strategy Support Program)

Project duration:

2010-2011

 


Work Packages

Work package 1:

Policy network study of CADDP in Malawi

Work package 2:

Elite Networks, Policy Belief Formation and Agricultural Policy Design in Malawi: Application of a CGPE Approach

The Determining Factors of Local Governments Performance in Russia, Poland, Slovakia and Germany

Abstract:

Public programs in infrastructure und social services throughout developing countries have been beset by problems of wastage and corruption. The Situation, where local elite can move the local governments to establish distorted policies to achieve additional rents, is called the \"government capture\". Furthermore, accountability of local government determines its’ performance delivering local public goods to their community. Both government capture and accountability are determined by the formal and informal institutional mechanisms of public goods delivery. In this context, the aim of this project is to analyze to which way and to what extend capture and accountability is influenced by formal and informal political institutions. To this end performance of local governments is understood as efficiency in the production of local public good. In detail, the impact of formal constitutional rules, e.g. federal versus central institutions, and local policy networks as informal political institutions on local government performance will be analyzed. Beyond a theoretical analysis the project includes a empirical comparative analysis between the selected countries: Russia, Poland, Slovakia and Germany.

 

Project Director:

Prof. Dr. Dr. Christian Henning
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kiel, Germany

Project Assistant:

Svetlana Petri
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kiel, Germany

Project Funding:

Förderung des wissenschaftlichen und des künstlerischen Nachwuchses des Landes Schleswig-Holstein

Project Duration:

2010-2013

 


Work Packages

Work package 1:

The Determining Factors of Local Governments Performance in Russia, Poland, Slovakia and Germany